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Mac OS X v10.4 Tiger is the fifth major release of Mac OS X. Tiger was released to the public on 29 April 2005 for US$129.95 as the successor to Mac OS X Panther (version 10.3), which had been released 18 months earlier. Some of the new features included a fast searching system called Spotlight, a new version of the Safari web browser, Dashboard, a new 'Unified' theme, and improved support for 64-bit addressing on Power Mac G5s. Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file searching and improved graphics processing, which Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.

Apple announced a transition to Intel x86 processors during Tiger's lifetime, making it the first released Apple operating system to work on Apple–Intel architecture machines. The Apple TV, as released in March 2007, ships with a customized version of Mac OS X Tiger branded "Apple TV OS" that replaces the usual graphical user interface with an updated version of Front Row.

System requirements

Tiger was initially available in a PowerPC edition, with an Intel edition released beginning at 10.4.4. There is no universal version of the client operating system. While Apple shipped the PowerPC edition bundled with PowerPC-based Macs and also sold it as a separate retail box, the only way to get the Intel version was bundled with an Intel-based Mac..
The system requirements of the PowerPC edition are:
A PowerPC G3, G4, or G5 processor running at 300 MHz or faster
Built-in FireWire
At least 256 MB of RAM, 128 MB can run it unofficially though (512 MB or 1 GB recommended)
At least 3 GB of available hard disk space; 4 GB of disk space including the Xcode 2 Tools, 2 GB for the minimal install
DVD-ROM drive (CD-ROM exchange was available; offer ended on March 20, 2007)
Tiger removed support for older New World ROM Macs such as the original iMacs and iBooks that were supported in Panther

New and changed features

Apple advertises that Tiger has 150+ features, including:
Spotlight — Spotlight is a full-text and metadata search engine, which can search everything on one's Mac including Microsoft Word documents, iCal calendars and Address Book contact cards. The feature is also used to build the concept of smart folders into the Finder. Spotlight will index files as they are saved, so they can be quickly and easily found through a search-as-you-type box in the menu bar. As a side-effect, it adds hidden folders and indexing files to removable media like USB flash drives.
iChat AV — The new iChat AV 3.0 in Tiger supports up to four participants in a video conference and ten participants in an audio conference. It also now supports communication using the XMPP protocol. A XMPP server called iChat Server is included on Mac OS X Tiger Server.
Safari RSS — The new Safari 2.0 web browser in Tiger features a built-in reader for RSS and Atom web syndication that can be accessed easily from an RSS button in the address bar of the web browser window. An updated version of Safari, included as part of the free Mac OS X v10.4.3 update, can also pass the Acid2 web standards test.
Mail 2 — The new version of Mail.app email client included in Tiger featured an updated interface, "Smart Mailboxes" which utilize the Spotlight search system, parental controls, as well as several other features.
Dashboard — The Dashboard is a new mini-applications layer based on HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, which returns the desk accessories concept to the Mac OS. These accessories are known as widgets. It comes with several widgets such as Weather, World Clock, Unit Converter, and Dictionary/Thesaurus. More are available for free online. Its similarity to the Konfabulator application caused some criticism.
Automator — A scripting tool called Automator to link applications together to form complex automated workflows (written in AppleScript, Cocoa, or both). Automator comes with a complete library of actions for several applications that can be used together to make a Workflow.
VoiceOver — VoiceOver is an accessibility interface that offers the user magnification options, keyboard control and spoken English descriptions of what is happening on screen. VoiceOver enables users with visual impairment the ability to use applications via spoken commands. It also allows a user to work collaboratively with other users on a single Mac by allowing multiple users give voice commands to scroll text, etc. VoiceOver is capable of reading aloud the contents of files including web pages, mail messages and word processing files. The complete keyboard navigation lets the user control the computer with the keyboard rather than mouse, a menu is displayed in a window showing all the available keyboard commands that can be used.
A complete built-in Dictionary/Thesaurus based on the New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edition, accessible through an application, Dictionary, a Dashboard widget, and as a system-wide command (see below).
.Mac syncing — Though this is not a new feature, .Mac syncing in Tiger is much improved over Panther. Syncing tasks in Tiger are now accomplished through the .Mac system preferences pane rather than the iSync application.
QuickTime 7 — A new version of Apple's multimedia software has support for the new H.264/AVC codec which offers better quality and
New Unix features — New versions of cp, mv, and rsync which support files with resource forks. Command-line support for features like the above-mentioned Spotlight are also included.
Xcode 2.0 — Xcode 2.0, Apple's Cocoa development tool now includes visual modeling.
Automator — Automator uses workflows to process repetitive tasks automatically
Grapher — Grapher is a new application capable of creating 2D and 3D graphs similar to that of Graphing Calculator.
Dictionary — A dictionary and thesaurus program which uses the New Oxford American Dictionary.
Quartz Composer — Quartz Composer is a development tool for processing and rendering graphical data.
AU Lab — AU Lab is a developer application for testing and mixing Audio Units.
Dashboard — Dashboard is a widget application.

Improvements

An upgraded kernel with optimized kernel resource locking and access control lists, and with support for 64-bit userland address spaces on machines with 64-bit processors.]
An updated libSystem with both 32-bit and 64-bit versions; combined with the aforementioned kernel change, this allows individual applications to address more than 4 GB of memory when run on 64-bit processors, although an application using Apple libraries or frameworks other than libSystem would need to have two processes, one running the 64-bit code and one running the code that requires other libraries and frameworks.
A new startup daemon called launchd that allows for faster boots.
The printing dialog in Tiger now features a drop down menu for creating PDFs, sending PDFs to Mail, and other PDF related actions. However, the user interface has been criticized for creating a hybrid widget that looks like a plain button but acts like a pop-up menu. This is one of only three places in the entire Mac OS X interface where such an element appears.
Dock menus now have menu items to open an application at login, or to remove the icon from the dock.
The Window menu in the Finder now features a "Cycle Through Windows" menu item.
The Get Info window for items in the Finder now includes a "More Info" section that includes Spotlight information tags such as Image Height & Width, when the file was last opened, and where the file originated.
OSX 10.4